2009年12月13日

Technological partnerships

by, India pushes for common responsibility

Technological partnerships


Same might say that India's projected three-or fourfold growth of emmissions by 2030 under business as usual is much too high an estimate, but given the high economic growth rates achieved by India in recent decades this is a realistic projection.

Without the development of low-carbon technologies and the transfer of technology, developing countries will continue to emulate the emissions-intensive growth patterns seen in the developed world.

But alongside well-defined intellectual property rights, technological innovation can be created through partnerships between developed and developing countries at much lower cost than if these were driven solely by the developed world.

It is for this reason that US companies such as GE are carrying out substantial reseach and development activities in India.


(… to be continue…)


### DataBace ###
nature Vol.461 1019-1162 Issue no.7267 22 Octover 2009
Editorials p.1027 :"Climate of compromise"
Destination Copenhagen :「コペンハーゲン会議の行方
News p.1034 / Time running out for climate for climate talks
News Feature p.1042 / When the Ice melts
News Feature p.1048 / Counting carbon in the Amazon
Opinion p.1054 / India pushes for common responsibility


see page
posted by 0≠素子(由理政宗) at 16:57| Road to Copenhagen | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

2009年12月11日

India pushes for common responsibility

Rajendra K. Pachauri says that india wants to be a constructive partner in Copenhagen negotiations on climate change.

The country is taking domestic action even though it cannot accept mandatory emissions limits.



India expects a strong agreement at December's United Nations climate conference in Copenhagen for several reasons.

First, the country is very vulnerable to the effects of climate chabge, both those projected to occur within its own territory and those in neighbouring countries.

Babgladesh, for instance, with a population of 160 million people is extremely vulnerable to sea level rise.

This, along with the growing intensity and frequency of cyclones and other extreme events could result in large numbers of migrants fleeing to India.

Equally serious are the problems associated with glaciers melting in the Hindu Kush region.

Must of the rivers in northern India originate in these glaciers, and decline in river flows because of reduced glacial mass would lead to water scarcity for India and its neighbours.

Climate change is also likely to directly affect agricultural production, because there is growing evidence that some agricultural crops are seeing a decline in yields due to climate change, most notably wheat crops grown in North India (H. Pathak et al. Field Crops Res. 80,223-234;2003).

Consequently, India has a vital stake in the stabilization of Earth's climate system.


(… to be continue…)


### DataBace ###
nature Vol.461 1019-1162 Issue no.7267 22 Octover 2009
Editorials p.1027 :"Climate of compromise"
Destination Copenhagen :「コペンハーゲン会議の行方
News p.1034 / Time running out for climate for climate talks
News Feature p.1042 / When the Ice melts
News Feature p.1048 / Counting carbon in the Amazon
Opinion p.1054 / Technological partnerships

see page
posted by 0≠素子(由理政宗) at 22:29| Road to Copenhagen | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

2009年12月10日

Counting carbon in the Amazon

If the next crimate treaty treaty tackles deforestation, tropical nations will need to monitor the biomass of their forests.

One ecologist has worked out a way to do that from the sky, finds Jeff Tollefson.



Greg asner peers out an open window, taking stockof the jungle as the single-engine prop plane chugs over a pair of scarlet macaws gliding among the treetops 120 metres below.

The Peruvian Amazon stretches in all directions, painted in countless shades of green accented here and there by patches of purple, pink and yellow.

Occasionally, naked white trunks rise amid the leaves, a reminder that even the rainforest has deciduous tendencies.


(… to be continue…)


### DataBace ###
nature Vol.461 1019-1162 Issue no.7267 22 Octover 2009
Editorials p.1027 :"Climate of compromise"
Destination Copenhagen :「コペンハーゲン会議の行方
News p.1034 / Time running out for climate for climate talks
News Feature p.1042 / When the Ice melts

see page
posted by 0≠素子(由理政宗) at 10:59| Road to Copenhagen | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

2009年12月09日

When the Ice melts

Deep in the Himalayas, the disappearance of glaciers is threatening the kingdom of Bhutan.

Anjail Neyar trekked through the mountains to see how the country is adapting to a warming world.



Kaka Tshering loops a piece of frayed jute rope around a 150-kilogram boulder.

A handful of his fellow workers line up on either end and pull the rope taught.

"Shochi, Shoni," the workers call in unison, as they heave.

Their voices are raspy from the 4,400-metre altitude and moist, cold air.

"Put your strength together."

After rocking a couple of times, the boukder rolls over and the labourers tumble backwords.

Their cries are drowned out by the furious work around them as more than 300 men and shovels to reach their daily quota.


The work force is a cross-section of life in Bhutan.

There are number of young dropouts from the capital Thimphu, with greasy, shoulder-length hair and tattoos running up thetr forearms.

Retired soldiers from the Royal Bhutan Aemy labour alongside former students of Buddhism.

There are a handful of women in their traditional tartan-style robes, beaded necklaces and antique silver and turquoise brooches.


Together in matching hard hats and leaky rubber boots, they make up Bhutan's army ageinst the sffects of climate change.

Their task is to deepen and widen the outlet channel from lakes fromed by the rapidly melting Thorthormi glacier (pictured above, to the right of the lake).

By helping the water to drain faster, Bhutanese officials hope to prevent a catastrophic flood.


(… to be continue…)


### DataBace ###
nature Vol.461 1019-1162 Issue no.7267 22 Octover 2009
Editorials p.1027 :"Climate of compromise"
Destination Copenhagen :「コペンハーゲン会議の行方
News p.1034 / Time running out for climate for climate talks
News Feature


see page
posted by 0≠素子(由理政宗) at 15:50| Road to Copenhagen | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

2009年12月07日

Time running out for climate for climate talks

Rift between developed and developing nations might be to great.


With just five negotiating days left before the global-war,ing summit in Copenhagen this December, the international climate community has tenpered its expectations and begun to look for a graceful exit.


Pressure on global leaders has been building since negotiators signed the 'Bali Road Map' in December 2007, which set an aggressive time-table that was supposed to conclude in Denmark with a treaty to follow the 1997 Kyoto Protocol.

Rich and poor countries alike have spent two years crafting climate policies and proposals, but deep divisions remain.


When irate representatives of developing nations walked out of a meeting with European officials in Bangkok earlire this month, many realised that even technical questions obout how to structure a deal might be out of reach this year.

Only one interim negotiating meeting remains ― in Barcelona, Spain, on 2-6 NoVember.

Even staunch optimists are now erthinking their definition of success in Copenhagen.


(… to be continue…)


### DataBace ###
nature Vol.461 1019-1162 Issue no.7267 22 Octover 2009
Editorials p.1027 :"Climate of compromise"
Destination Copenhagen :「コペンハーゲン会議の行方
News

see page
posted by 0≠素子(由理政宗) at 01:48| Road to Copenhagen | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

2009年12月06日

Climate of compromise

The chances of a strong treaty emerging from the United Nations climate talks in Copenhagen seem small, but recent progess offers hope.



With obout six weeks left before nations gsther in Copenhagen to finish negotiating a climate treaty, hopes are rapidly dwindlinug that countries will be ready to sign a strong, ratifiable agreement.

The pessimism has spread so widely that it could be considered a global pandemic.

News stories are already talking about the 'failure' of Copenhagen and squandered opportunities.


But viewed from the perspective of just a few years ago, the Copenhagen summit could already be considered a partial success.

In a short span, manynations have pledged to cut their emissions of greenhouse gases by considerable amounts, well beyond any commitments they had made before, such as through the 1997 Kyoto Protocol.

Norway, for exanple, offered this month to reduce its own emissions by 40% below 1990 levels by 2020.

Indonesia said it would curb its emissions over that same time by 26% below the levels expected under a business-as-usual scenario, with even stronger cuts possible under an international agreement.

The European Union has committed to a 20% reduction below 1990 levels and would increase that to 30% with a global pact.

And, for the first time, the US Congress is moving towards establishing laws that mandate emissions cuts.



(… to be continue…)


### DataBace ###
nature Vol.461 1019-1162 Issue no.7267 22 Octover 2009
Editorials
Destination Copenhagen : 「コペンハーゲン会議の行方

see page
posted by 0≠素子(由理政宗) at 00:32| Road to Copenhagen | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

2009年11月12日

India's lost water

Water resourses are at a premium in many parts of the world, and India is one of them.

Indirect evdence suggests that groundwater in being consumed faster than it is being naturally replenished in northwest Indea, but assessments of large-scale rates of depletion are difficult to construct from ground-based measurements.

Gravity observations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, combined with land surface models, have been used to produce a time series of groundwater strage variations in India.

The analysis reveals a progressively more severe reduction in groundwater in Northwestern India between 2002 and 2008.

Groundwater has been depleted at a mean rate of 4.0 cm of water per year averaged over the northern Ibdian states of Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana.

The authors consider unsustainable consumption of groundwater for irrigation and other anthropogenic uses as the most likely cause.


### DataBace ###
nature Vol.460 925-1050 Issue no.7258 20 August 2009
Letter p999 / Satellite-based estimates of groundwater depletion in India / M Rodell et al.

posted by 0≠素子(由理政宗) at 15:35| earth | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

2009年11月06日

Holocene carbon cycle

A new atmospheric δ^13 C record derived from measurements of air trapped in the EPICA Dome C Antarctic ice more, combined with a simple carbon model, provides a high-resolution view of the carbon cycle during the Holocene, the current interglacial period that started about 11,000 years ago.

Previous reconstructions had revealed significant chenges in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, but the processes responsible for these changes were unclear.

The new data suggest that the 5 p.p.m.v. decrease in atmospheric CO2 during the early Holocene resulted from an uptake of about 290 gigatons of carbon by the land biosphere together with carbon release from the ocean in response to carbonate compensation of the terrestrial uptake at the end of the last ice age.

The 20 p.p.m.v. increase of atmospheric CO2 during the later Holocene can be mostly explained in terms of carbonate compensation of earlier land biosphere uptake and coral reef formation, with a minor contribution from a small decrease of the land biosphere carbon inventory.


### DataBace ###
nature Vol.461 439-558 Issue no.7263 24 September 2009
Letter p.507


posted by 0≠素子(由理政宗) at 22:53| climate | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

2009年10月26日

Calculating on the ice

Mass loss from marginal glaciers along the Greenland and Atrantic ice sheets is known to be contributing to sea-level rise but the precise magnitude and mechanisms are unclear, making it difficult to predict its potential future contribution to sealevel.

Surface mass loss is certainly a factor.

Ice loss from faster glacier flow ― called dynamical thinning ― has been more difficult to pin down.

High-resolution satellite altimetry measurements now show that dynamical thinning is for more important and extensive than previously thought, especially at ocean margins.


### DataBace ###
nature Vol.461 837-1018 Issue no.7266 15 October 2009
Letter p.971 / Extensive dynamic thinning on the margins of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets / H D Pritchard et al.


see page
posted by 0≠素子(由理政宗) at 23:00| earth | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

2009年03月16日

CliMate Chenge 2007 : 2

Existing Projects in the Grobal Carbon Market
Braldown of 1,534 projects in the CDM pipeline

Global Warming Potential(GWP)

Methane
Landfill (11%)
Livestock (3%)
Wastewater (1%)
Oil field (4%)
Coal mine (4%)

HFC-23 from refrigerant manufacturing(28%)
(CFC - Ozone destruction coefficient 0.5-1.0 : /Trifluoromethane)
Fluoroform
Clean Development Mechanism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nitrous oxide
Nitric acid (1%)
Adipic acid (10%)

* (『Carbon dioxide』)


■ CO2-lowering projects

Other(3%)
Efficient energy use (1%)
Fuel switching - Natural gas prices(2%)
Combined gas turbinen - Combined cycle (6%)
Wind power (6%)
Hydro power (6%)
Biomass fels / Biomass (ecology) (7%)
data
 The existing commercial biomass power generating industry in the United States, which consists of approximately 1,700 MW (megawatts) of operating capacity actively supplying power to the grid, produces about 0.5 percent of the U.S. electricity supply. - *(average Hi-0.07%)



Scheiden-Wollgras
Cement processing (2%)
Waste heat (3%)


### DataBace ###
nature Vol.445 567-682 Issue no.7228 8 February 2008
Editorials p.567 / Light at the end of the tunnel (see page)
News In Brief p.577 / Climate Cange 2007
News In Brief p.578 / IPCC presents overwhelming case for climate change
News In Brief p.580 / What we don't know about climate change
News In Brief p.581 / The latest data
News In Brief p.582 / Climate sceptics change tack | Costing climate change
News In Brief p.596 / Existing Projects in the Grobal Carbon Market

posted by 0≠素子(由理政宗) at 02:03| Comment(0) | IPCC - Climate Change | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする
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