2010年01月03日

Q&A : Architect of a sustainable future

German architect Albert Speer Jr is a pioneer of sustainable building and city planning whose firm has designed ecological cammunities from Cologne in Germany to Shanghai in China.

With the publocation of a new book setting out his philosophy, he explains why we should take a more holistic approach to urban development.




What does sustainability mean to you ?

That we don't use more resources today than we can rebuild for the next generation.

We still, everywhere, need too much energy and too much of everything else ― mobility, land use and so on.

Western society thinks in sectors, and not enough in circles.

We must be holistic and interdisciplinary.


(… to be continue…)



### DataBace ###
nature Vol.461 1019-1162 Issue no.7267 22 Octover 2009
Editorials p.1027 :"Climate of compromise"
Destination Copenhagen :「コペンハーゲン会議の行方
News p.1034 / Time running out for climate for climate talks
News Feature p.1042 / When the Ice melts
News Feature p.1048 / Counting carbon in the Amazon
Opinion p.1054 / India pushes for common responsibility ; Technological partnerships
Opinion p.1055 / China expects leadership from rich nations
Opinion p.1056 / Copenhagen needs a strong lead negotiator
; A whole solutionClever tacticsNo regrets
Books & Arts p.1058-1059 /Conveying the campaign messageSpanning diversityQ&A : The science of persuasion, Climate books with clout

see page
posted by 0≠素子(由理政宗) at 15:51| Road to Copenhagen | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

2009年12月27日

Climate books with clout

David Reay examines the evolution of books about global warming and highlights those that have had most influence on public perceptions.


In the past two decades, a plethora of global-warming books has catered for increasingly sophisticated and specialist demand.

Science, policy and public opinion evolve daily, so any new book on climate change risks being outdated before it hits the shelves.

Novertheless, some accounts have been highly influential.


The first popularclimate-change books were generalists.

Released into a world with few competitors, Bill McKibben's The End of Nature (Random House, 1989) and John Houghton's excellentGlobal Warming : The Complete Briefing (Lion Publishing, 1994) flourished as an increasing number of readers looked for a digestible take on the dense tomes of the bewly formed Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) , of which Houghton was co-chairman.

These books used the blunt declaration that anthropogenic global warming is real to pull in a lay audience whose awareness of climate change was only just beginning to build.


(… to be continue…)



### DataBace ###
nature Vol.461 1019-1162 Issue no.7267 22 Octover 2009
Editorials p.1027 :"Climate of compromise"
Destination Copenhagen :「コペンハーゲン会議の行方
News p.1034 / Time running out for climate for climate talks
News Feature p.1042 / When the Ice melts
News Feature p.1048 / Counting carbon in the Amazon
Opinion p.1054 / India pushes for common responsibility ; Technological partnerships
Opinion p.1055 / China expects leadership from rich nations
Opinion p.1056 / Copenhagen needs a strong lead negotiator
; A whole solutionClever tacticsNo regrets
Books & Arts p.1058-1059 /Conveying the campaign messageSpanning diversityQ&A : The science of persuasion

see page
posted by 0≠素子(由理政宗) at 21:15| Road to Copenhagen | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

2009年12月25日

Spanning diversity

To find a global consensus, conversations on climate need to span diverse groups and surmount linguistic and cultural barriers.

Campaigns that use numbers are one option : "Slogans can mean someting different in Johannesburg and Delhi and Vancouver, but numbers remain reassuringly the same," says Bill McKibben, author of the End of Nature (Randon House, 1989).

He leads the campaign 350.org, which advocates decreasing atmospheric CO2 to 350 parts per million.

On 24 October, his group will seek media attention by staging visual stunts that represent the number 350 through group performances, including choreographed mountain climbing and skydiving.

"Physis and chemistry are poor begotiators ― they don't haggle or compromise," reflects McKibben.

Tied to her fikm the Age of Stupid, Armstrong also leads a numberbased campaign : '10:10' calls for a reduction in UK carbon emissions by 10% in 2010.


(… to be continue…)



### DataBace ###
nature Vol.461 1019-1162 Issue no.7267 22 Octover 2009
Editorials p.1027 :"Climate of compromise"
Destination Copenhagen :「コペンハーゲン会議の行方
News p.1034 / Time running out for climate for climate talks
News Feature p.1042 / When the Ice melts
News Feature p.1048 / Counting carbon in the Amazon
Opinion p.1054 / India pushes for common responsibility ; Technological partnerships
Opinion p.1055 / China expects leadership from rich nations
Opinion p.1056 / Copenhagen needs a strong lead negotiator
; A whole solutionClever tacticsNo regrets
Books & Arts p.1058-1059 /Conveying the campaign message, Q&A : The science of persuasion

see page
posted by 0≠素子(由理政宗) at 15:16| Road to Copenhagen | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

Conveying the campaign message

The arts and advertising can galvanise public and political will in tackling global warming.

But sheared concern for human health is a better motivator than polar bears,finds Sabjay Khanna



This August at Beijing's Temple of Earth an installation of 100 ice sculpturs of children melted in the heat.

It repressented the billion lives that will be lost in Asia because of water shortages coused by climate change.

The artwork ― commissioned by Greenpeace to launch the TckTckTck campaign for 'bold climate action' ― is one of many cultural events aiming to sway political negotiators in the lead-up to the United Nations Climate Changr Conference (COP15) in Copenhagen in December.


(… to be continue…)



### DataBace ###
nature Vol.461 1019-1162 Issue no.7267 22 Octover 2009
Editorials p.1027 :"Climate of compromise"
Destination Copenhagen :「コペンハーゲン会議の行方
News p.1034 / Time running out for climate for climate talks
News Feature p.1042 / When the Ice melts
News Feature p.1048 / Counting carbon in the Amazon
Opinion p.1054 / India pushes for common responsibility ; Technological partnerships
Opinion p.1055 / China expects leadership from rich nations
Opinion p.1056 / Copenhagen needs a strong lead negotiator
; A whole solutionClever tacticsNo regrets
Books & Arts p.1058-1059 / Q&A : The science of persuasion

see page
posted by 0≠素子(由理政宗) at 13:06| Road to Copenhagen | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

2009年12月23日

Q&A : The science of persuasion

Psychologist Robert Fifford is co-author of a recent American Psycho logical Asso ciation report that exa minied the interface between psychology and climate chabge.

He explains what makes people receptive and how to get messages about climate science across effectively.




Why do climate scientists who speak to the public face a paradox?

Scientists understand that climate models inherently have uncertainty.

But as soon as the public experiences some uncertainty in the message, people begin to dither and to say, "Well, I guess it's not so urgent ― the experts aren't so sure of themselves".


How can climate campaigners make themselves heard?

Messages have to be carefully targeted to different demographic groups, based on their self-interest.

For the older generation, it's about their children and grandchildren ; and for the younger generation, it's about them and their generation.


(… to be continue…)



### DataBace ###
nature Vol.461 1019-1162 Issue no.7267 22 Octover 2009
Editorials p.1027 :"Climate of compromise"
Destination Copenhagen :「コペンハーゲン会議の行方
News p.1034 / Time running out for climate for climate talks
News Feature p.1042 / When the Ice melts
News Feature p.1048 / Counting carbon in the Amazon
Opinion p.1054 / India pushes for common responsibility ; Technological partnerships
Opinion p.1055 / China expects leadership from rich nations
Opinion p.1056 / Copenhagen needs a strong lead negotiator
; A whole solutionClever tacticsNo regrets

see page
posted by 0≠素子(由理政宗) at 14:06| Road to Copenhagen | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

2009年12月17日

No regrets

by,Copenhagen needs a strong lead negotiator
/ A whole solutionClever tactics


The politial decisions made for the Kyouto protocol had their shortcomings.

We for the Kyouto protocol had their shortcomings.

We opted to put targets an a range of gases, knowing that we had very different degrees of certainty on the estimation of emissions for each of them.

Selecting 1990 as the base year for emissions comparisons was arbitrary, if politically convenient, as was selecting a 100-year horizon.

The taeget of a 5% emissions reduction was too modest, but it was the only one politically possible.

Despite this, the Kyouto Protocol has had an undeniably positive impact in international policy : climate change is now at the centre of the international scene, and Raul Estrada-oyuera have no regrets about the negotiation.


Some have suggested that large deals always resultin unsatisfactory comoromise, and that smaller agreements are better alternatives.

The administration of former US President George W. Bush, for one, prompted meetings among some 15-20 governments to discuss their own Climate initiatves.

These talks continue, but with no results.

Differences between lage world economies remain the same even in small meetings.

Plus, only large meetings can properly capture the needs of the developing world.


(… to be continue…)


### DataBace ###
nature Vol.461 1019-1162 Issue no.7267 22 Octover 2009
Editorials p.1027 :"Climate of compromise"
Destination Copenhagen :「コペンハーゲン会議の行方
News p.1034 / Time running out for climate for climate talks
News Feature p.1042 / When the Ice melts
News Feature p.1048 / Counting carbon in the Amazon
Opinion p.1054 / India pushes for common responsibility ; Technological partnerships
Opinion p.1055 / China expects leadership from rich nations
Opinion p.1056 / Copenhagen needs a strong lead negotiator
; A whole solutionClever tactics

see page
posted by 0≠素子(由理政宗) at 18:26| Road to Copenhagen | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

2009年12月15日

Clever tactics

by,Copenhagen needs a strong lead negotiator
/ A whole solution


The intergoovernmental Negotiating Committee met for the first time in Febuary 1991 just outsade Washington DC.

From the start, as today, the United States and India made progress difficult : at one point, the US representative, Bob Reinstein, refused to participate in a crucical meeting.

After insisting in many ways without success, I obtained a suite for an impromptu luncheon and invited all the relevant delegates, including Reinstein.

Using a trick learned from Koh, I appealed to their good manners and the rules of polite siplomacy to point out that they could not decline the chairman's invitation.

We had lunch, we forged an agreement and, fortunately, Estrada-oyuera had a credit card to over the bill.


(… to be continue…)


### DataBace ###
nature Vol.461 1019-1162 Issue no.7267 22 Octover 2009
Editorials p.1027 :"Climate of compromise"
Destination Copenhagen :「コペンハーゲン会議の行方
News p.1034 / Time running out for climate for climate talks
News Feature p.1042 / When the Ice melts
News Feature p.1048 / Counting carbon in the Amazon
Opinion p.1054 / India pushes for common responsibility ; Technological partnerships
Opinion p.1055 / China expects leadership from rich nations
Opinion p.1056 / Copenhagen needs a strong lead negotiator
; A whole solution

see page
posted by 0≠素子(由理政宗) at 21:17| Road to Copenhagen | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

A whole solution

by, Copenhagen needs a strong lead negotiator


The best option, Raul Estrada-oyuera think, would be to create a Committee of the Whole that would combines negotiations from the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol, which are currently run by separate committees with separate chairs.

It is still possible to do this, and it will remain possible until the conference starts.

The last preparatory meeting, in Barcelona on 2-6 November, will be an opportunity to consider this point.

If such a committee is formed, its elected chair would naturally lead the negotiations at the Copenhagen summit.

If this doesn't happen, the chance of making a good deal will be lessened.


(… to be continue…)


### DataBace ###
nature Vol.461 1019-1162 Issue no.7267 22 Octover 2009
Editorials p.1027 :"Climate of compromise"
Destination Copenhagen :「コペンハーゲン会議の行方
News p.1034 / Time running out for climate for climate talks
News Feature p.1042 / When the Ice melts
News Feature p.1048 / Counting carbon in the Amazon
Opinion p.1054 / India pushes for common responsibility ; Technological partnerships
Opinion p.1055 / China expects leadership from rich nations
Opinion p.1056 / Copenhagen needs a strong lead negotiator

see page
posted by 0≠素子(由理政宗) at 15:22| Road to Copenhagen | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

Copenhagen needs a strong lead negotiator

Reaching an international climate agreement requires someone with exceptional skill, knowledge and diplomacy, says Kyoto chair Raul Estrada-oyuera.


As the professional diplomat who presided over tha Kyoto Protocol negotiations, it is clear to me how vital it is to have a good leader to steer negotiations at the Copenhagen conference on climate this December.

Time is short, and matters are very complex.

Although it may prove impossible to agree on quantified commitments at the meeting itself, a strong effort should be made for a deal that at lest sttls the main political objectives, with the aim of finalizing the agreements at subsidiary meetings in June 2010.


The United Nations Fremework Convention Climate Change (UNFCCC) currebtly involves 192 governments, making negotiation a major exercise in diplomacy.

To come to an agreement, the process needs a well established leader who is fair, forceful, committed and well informed on the subject under debate and on the aspirations and bottom lines of all parties.


(… to be continue…)


### DataBace ###
nature Vol.461 1019-1162 Issue no.7267 22 Octover 2009
Editorials p.1027 :"Climate of compromise"
Destination Copenhagen :「コペンハーゲン会議の行方
News p.1034 / Time running out for climate for climate talks
News Feature p.1042 / When the Ice melts
News Feature p.1048 / Counting carbon in the Amazon
Opinion p.1054 / India pushes for common responsibility ; Technological partnerships
Opinion p.1055 / China expects leadership from rich nations
Opinion p.1056

see page
posted by 0≠素子(由理政宗) at 13:46| Road to Copenhagen | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

2009年12月14日

China expects leadership from rich nations

Greater emissions cuts by developed nations are the starting point for a successful climate deal at Copenhagen in December say Jiahua Pan.


To reach a successful climate agreement at the UN climate in Copenhagen, three fundamental elements (scientific evidance, politi cal will and economic interest) and four practical elements (target setting for emissions reducutions, adaptation, technology and financing) need to be addressed.

Of these factors, negotiators will focus most atention, superficially, on mitigation targets.

more fundamentally, howwever, they will focus on understanding economic impacts.


The Chinese pardpective is that reaching a deal will depend largely on decisive mitigation action being taken by the developed nations.

The developing nations will have every reason to follow suit if the rich nations demonstrate leadership and commit to more substantial cuts than they have offered so far.


(… to be continue…)


### DataBace ###
nature Vol.461 1019-1162 Issue no.7267 22 Octover 2009
Editorials p.1027 :"Climate of compromise"
Destination Copenhagen :「コペンハーゲン会議の行方
News p.1034 / Time running out for climate for climate talks
News Feature p.1042 / When the Ice melts
News Feature p.1048 / Counting carbon in the Amazon
Opinion p.1054 / India pushes for common responsibility ; Technological partnerships
Opinion p.1055

see page
posted by 0≠素子(由理政宗) at 10:13| Road to Copenhagen | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

2009年12月13日

Technological partnerships

by, India pushes for common responsibility

Technological partnerships


Same might say that India's projected three-or fourfold growth of emmissions by 2030 under business as usual is much too high an estimate, but given the high economic growth rates achieved by India in recent decades this is a realistic projection.

Without the development of low-carbon technologies and the transfer of technology, developing countries will continue to emulate the emissions-intensive growth patterns seen in the developed world.

But alongside well-defined intellectual property rights, technological innovation can be created through partnerships between developed and developing countries at much lower cost than if these were driven solely by the developed world.

It is for this reason that US companies such as GE are carrying out substantial reseach and development activities in India.


(… to be continue…)


### DataBace ###
nature Vol.461 1019-1162 Issue no.7267 22 Octover 2009
Editorials p.1027 :"Climate of compromise"
Destination Copenhagen :「コペンハーゲン会議の行方
News p.1034 / Time running out for climate for climate talks
News Feature p.1042 / When the Ice melts
News Feature p.1048 / Counting carbon in the Amazon
Opinion p.1054 / India pushes for common responsibility


see page
posted by 0≠素子(由理政宗) at 16:57| Road to Copenhagen | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

2009年12月11日

India pushes for common responsibility

Rajendra K. Pachauri says that india wants to be a constructive partner in Copenhagen negotiations on climate change.

The country is taking domestic action even though it cannot accept mandatory emissions limits.



India expects a strong agreement at December's United Nations climate conference in Copenhagen for several reasons.

First, the country is very vulnerable to the effects of climate chabge, both those projected to occur within its own territory and those in neighbouring countries.

Babgladesh, for instance, with a population of 160 million people is extremely vulnerable to sea level rise.

This, along with the growing intensity and frequency of cyclones and other extreme events could result in large numbers of migrants fleeing to India.

Equally serious are the problems associated with glaciers melting in the Hindu Kush region.

Must of the rivers in northern India originate in these glaciers, and decline in river flows because of reduced glacial mass would lead to water scarcity for India and its neighbours.

Climate change is also likely to directly affect agricultural production, because there is growing evidence that some agricultural crops are seeing a decline in yields due to climate change, most notably wheat crops grown in North India (H. Pathak et al. Field Crops Res. 80,223-234;2003).

Consequently, India has a vital stake in the stabilization of Earth's climate system.


(… to be continue…)


### DataBace ###
nature Vol.461 1019-1162 Issue no.7267 22 Octover 2009
Editorials p.1027 :"Climate of compromise"
Destination Copenhagen :「コペンハーゲン会議の行方
News p.1034 / Time running out for climate for climate talks
News Feature p.1042 / When the Ice melts
News Feature p.1048 / Counting carbon in the Amazon
Opinion p.1054 / Technological partnerships

see page
posted by 0≠素子(由理政宗) at 22:29| Road to Copenhagen | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

2009年12月10日

Counting carbon in the Amazon

If the next crimate treaty treaty tackles deforestation, tropical nations will need to monitor the biomass of their forests.

One ecologist has worked out a way to do that from the sky, finds Jeff Tollefson.



Greg asner peers out an open window, taking stockof the jungle as the single-engine prop plane chugs over a pair of scarlet macaws gliding among the treetops 120 metres below.

The Peruvian Amazon stretches in all directions, painted in countless shades of green accented here and there by patches of purple, pink and yellow.

Occasionally, naked white trunks rise amid the leaves, a reminder that even the rainforest has deciduous tendencies.


(… to be continue…)


### DataBace ###
nature Vol.461 1019-1162 Issue no.7267 22 Octover 2009
Editorials p.1027 :"Climate of compromise"
Destination Copenhagen :「コペンハーゲン会議の行方
News p.1034 / Time running out for climate for climate talks
News Feature p.1042 / When the Ice melts

see page
posted by 0≠素子(由理政宗) at 10:59| Road to Copenhagen | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

2009年12月09日

When the Ice melts

Deep in the Himalayas, the disappearance of glaciers is threatening the kingdom of Bhutan.

Anjail Neyar trekked through the mountains to see how the country is adapting to a warming world.



Kaka Tshering loops a piece of frayed jute rope around a 150-kilogram boulder.

A handful of his fellow workers line up on either end and pull the rope taught.

"Shochi, Shoni," the workers call in unison, as they heave.

Their voices are raspy from the 4,400-metre altitude and moist, cold air.

"Put your strength together."

After rocking a couple of times, the boukder rolls over and the labourers tumble backwords.

Their cries are drowned out by the furious work around them as more than 300 men and shovels to reach their daily quota.


The work force is a cross-section of life in Bhutan.

There are number of young dropouts from the capital Thimphu, with greasy, shoulder-length hair and tattoos running up thetr forearms.

Retired soldiers from the Royal Bhutan Aemy labour alongside former students of Buddhism.

There are a handful of women in their traditional tartan-style robes, beaded necklaces and antique silver and turquoise brooches.


Together in matching hard hats and leaky rubber boots, they make up Bhutan's army ageinst the sffects of climate change.

Their task is to deepen and widen the outlet channel from lakes fromed by the rapidly melting Thorthormi glacier (pictured above, to the right of the lake).

By helping the water to drain faster, Bhutanese officials hope to prevent a catastrophic flood.


(… to be continue…)


### DataBace ###
nature Vol.461 1019-1162 Issue no.7267 22 Octover 2009
Editorials p.1027 :"Climate of compromise"
Destination Copenhagen :「コペンハーゲン会議の行方
News p.1034 / Time running out for climate for climate talks
News Feature


see page
posted by 0≠素子(由理政宗) at 15:50| Road to Copenhagen | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

2009年12月07日

Time running out for climate for climate talks

Rift between developed and developing nations might be to great.


With just five negotiating days left before the global-war,ing summit in Copenhagen this December, the international climate community has tenpered its expectations and begun to look for a graceful exit.


Pressure on global leaders has been building since negotiators signed the 'Bali Road Map' in December 2007, which set an aggressive time-table that was supposed to conclude in Denmark with a treaty to follow the 1997 Kyoto Protocol.

Rich and poor countries alike have spent two years crafting climate policies and proposals, but deep divisions remain.


When irate representatives of developing nations walked out of a meeting with European officials in Bangkok earlire this month, many realised that even technical questions obout how to structure a deal might be out of reach this year.

Only one interim negotiating meeting remains ― in Barcelona, Spain, on 2-6 NoVember.

Even staunch optimists are now erthinking their definition of success in Copenhagen.


(… to be continue…)


### DataBace ###
nature Vol.461 1019-1162 Issue no.7267 22 Octover 2009
Editorials p.1027 :"Climate of compromise"
Destination Copenhagen :「コペンハーゲン会議の行方
News

see page
posted by 0≠素子(由理政宗) at 01:48| Road to Copenhagen | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

2009年12月06日

Climate of compromise

The chances of a strong treaty emerging from the United Nations climate talks in Copenhagen seem small, but recent progess offers hope.



With obout six weeks left before nations gsther in Copenhagen to finish negotiating a climate treaty, hopes are rapidly dwindlinug that countries will be ready to sign a strong, ratifiable agreement.

The pessimism has spread so widely that it could be considered a global pandemic.

News stories are already talking about the 'failure' of Copenhagen and squandered opportunities.


But viewed from the perspective of just a few years ago, the Copenhagen summit could already be considered a partial success.

In a short span, manynations have pledged to cut their emissions of greenhouse gases by considerable amounts, well beyond any commitments they had made before, such as through the 1997 Kyoto Protocol.

Norway, for exanple, offered this month to reduce its own emissions by 40% below 1990 levels by 2020.

Indonesia said it would curb its emissions over that same time by 26% below the levels expected under a business-as-usual scenario, with even stronger cuts possible under an international agreement.

The European Union has committed to a 20% reduction below 1990 levels and would increase that to 30% with a global pact.

And, for the first time, the US Congress is moving towards establishing laws that mandate emissions cuts.



(… to be continue…)


### DataBace ###
nature Vol.461 1019-1162 Issue no.7267 22 Octover 2009
Editorials
Destination Copenhagen : 「コペンハーゲン会議の行方

see page
posted by 0≠素子(由理政宗) at 00:32| Road to Copenhagen | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする
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