2009年03月16日

CliMate Chenge 2007 : 2

Existing Projects in the Grobal Carbon Market
Braldown of 1,534 projects in the CDM pipeline

Global Warming Potential(GWP)

Methane
Landfill (11%)
Livestock (3%)
Wastewater (1%)
Oil field (4%)
Coal mine (4%)

HFC-23 from refrigerant manufacturing(28%)
(CFC - Ozone destruction coefficient 0.5-1.0 : /Trifluoromethane)
Fluoroform
Clean Development Mechanism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nitrous oxide
Nitric acid (1%)
Adipic acid (10%)

* (『Carbon dioxide』)


■ CO2-lowering projects

Other(3%)
Efficient energy use (1%)
Fuel switching - Natural gas prices(2%)
Combined gas turbinen - Combined cycle (6%)
Wind power (6%)
Hydro power (6%)
Biomass fels / Biomass (ecology) (7%)
data
 The existing commercial biomass power generating industry in the United States, which consists of approximately 1,700 MW (megawatts) of operating capacity actively supplying power to the grid, produces about 0.5 percent of the U.S. electricity supply. - *(average Hi-0.07%)



Scheiden-Wollgras
Cement processing (2%)
Waste heat (3%)


### DataBace ###
nature Vol.445 567-682 Issue no.7228 8 February 2008
Editorials p.567 / Light at the end of the tunnel (see page)
News In Brief p.577 / Climate Cange 2007
News In Brief p.578 / IPCC presents overwhelming case for climate change
News In Brief p.580 / What we don't know about climate change
News In Brief p.581 / The latest data
News In Brief p.582 / Climate sceptics change tack | Costing climate change
News In Brief p.596 / Existing Projects in the Grobal Carbon Market

posted by 0≠素子(由理政宗) at 02:03| Comment(0) | IPCC - Climate Change | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

2009年03月13日

CliMate Chenge 2007

"The IPCC reportis not theleading -or blleding - edge of the sicense"
What we don't know about climate change

The 4th Assessment Report from the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has a finely calibrated lexicon of certainty.

"Virtually certain", it blaees when it assigns a 99% probability to hot days getting hotter and more frequent.

"Very likely", or more than 90% probable, are heavier rains. And so on down the list - inchuding the wishy - washy "more likely than not" when assinfning a greater than 50% probability, such as the chance that fuman activities are affecting the intensity of hurricanes.

Such care is crucical in a field that this is still, in some areas, shot through with uncertainty.

The IPCC has gone far in tightening up some key scientific unknowns about climate change (see page 578), but many still remein.

Some conclusions - such as the effect on partcular regions of the word, or exactly how much sea level will rise - remain more uncertain than others. This means that there's plenty of work left for the climate scientists on whom the IPCC process depends.

Perhaps most critically, researchers know relatively little about feedback efects that might enhance - or weaken - the pace and effects of climate change.

The complex flow of carbon between soils, plants, the oceans and the atmosphere is still being pinned down by large-scale climate experiments.

Some experts predict that, in a warmer world, eco-systems that are currently sinks for corbon, such as the Artic tundra, may turn into carbonsoueces.

But no one can yet accurately predict how this might pan out, and feedbacks amongland and air could end up putting for more carbon dioxde into tha atmosphere than currently forecast.

Other big unknowns are the effects of the take-up of carbon dioxide by the oceans, which removes the gas from the atmosphere and locks it away in the calcium cabonate of the shells and skeletons of marine organisms.

Higer levels of atmospheric carbon dioxde are expected to make the seas more acidic and slow down the rate of calcification, ultimately reducing the ocean's ability to absorb more carbon dioxde.

But precisely how the biology marine cresturs would play into that effect is unknown.

Nor is it knownhow changes in plankton composition and coral reefs, for example, might affect carbone dioxide concentrations.


(… to be continue…)


### DataBace ###
nature Vol.445 567-682 Issue no.7228 8 February 2008
Editorials p.567 / Light at the end of the tunnel (see page )
News In Brief p.577 / Climate Cange 2007
News In Brief p.578 / IPCC presents overwhelming case for climate change
News In Brief p.580 / What we don't know about climate change
News In Brief p.581 / The latest data
News In Brief p.582 / Climate sceptics change tack | Costing climate change

posted by 0≠素子(由理政宗) at 21:30| Comment(0) | IPCC - Climate Change | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

Rarity bites

Rare species have to cope not only with habitha loss, genetic bottlneks and invasive competitors, but also with a self-reinforcing cycle of human greed.

This last threat has now been dragged into the spotlight.

Ii. makes sene that, as a valued commodity becomes scarce, its cost rises. Indeed, Tests of the economic theories of demand have shown that consumers geratly value the hedonic exclusivity of owning rare objects, such as coins or stanps.(Koford,K. & Tashoegl, A.J.Econ. Behav. Orgal. 34,445-457/1998)

But is this desire restricted to the harmless venture of collecting histrical curiosities ?

Writing in PLoS Biology, Courchamp and colleagues suggest not.(Courchamp, F. et al. PloS Bioy, 4,e415/2006)

They describe an under-appreciated thorn in the side of endangered species already teetering on the brink of extinction - the lure of the few.

Srandard bioeconomics asserts that wildlife harvests will halt when the expence of locating individuals of a species exceeds the financialgain, thus shielding thatspecies from fatal overexploitation.

However, Courchamp et al. develop a mathematical model to show that theexploitation of rare and endangered species can have paradxical outcome.

If rarity makes themmore desirable to some, then ever-increasing pecuniary in centives for poaching can create a positive feedback loop, ending in the species' demise.

The outhors show how the value placed on rare species for collections, as luxury items, as pets or trophies, in traditionalmedicine, and even in ecotourism, can keep pace with the cost of acquiring such spacies.


### DataBace ###
nature Vol.444 519-652 Issue no.7119 8 November 2006
News and Views p.157 / Barry W. Brook & Navjot S. Sodhi

posted by 0≠素子(由理政宗) at 01:00| Comment(0) | Consevation Biology | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする

2009年03月10日

Light at the end of the tunnel

An emphatic and clear status report on global warming opens the way for action - presenting new risks.

The relece of the 2007 report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) last Friday marks an important milestone (See peges 578-585 and 595-598). Fllowwing the sientific consensus that has been apparent for some time, solid political consensus that acknowledges the problem finally seems seems to be within reach. But achieving this outcome brings its own risks.


### DataBace ###
nature Vol.445 567-682 Issue no.7228 8 February 2008
Editorials p.567 / Light at the end of the tunnel
News In Brief p.577 / Climate Cange 2007
News In Brief p.578 / IPCC presents overwhelming case for climate change
News In Brief p.580 / What we don't know about climate change
News In Brief p.581 / The latest data
News In Brief p.582 / Climate sceptics change tack | Costing climate change

posted by 0≠素子(由理政宗) at 06:32| Comment(0) | IPCC - Climate Change | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする
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